Women Historically in Brewing
A Polish countess figures in our story (see below) but first, some general background on women and brewing.
A detailed Wikipedia essay on women in brewing states:
From the beginning of industrialization to the 1960s and early 1970s, most women were moved out of the brewing industry, though throughout the world, they continued to homebrew following ancestral methods.”The main obstacles that women continue to face in [the] industry include perceptions of taste, media influence, and preconceived notions about their skill and ability”, according to journalist Krystal Baugher.
The essay details the long history of women in brewing. In world-historical terms, the period of exclusion is relatively narrow. It intensified with industrialization, but my reading suggests it started earlier, with the rise of brewing guilds in Europe.
I will have the chance to document this in scholarly writing later this year.
With the growth of modern craft brewing women have entered – re-entered – professional brewing. Lingering attitudes that may inhibit their opportunities is one of the cultural issues discussed in social media and academic writing.
Women in Pre-craft Breweries
What of the industrial period though, when women “didn’t” brew? Of course, some did. There is probably a large group, especially connected to smaller breweries, who worked closely with their husbands even though not possessing a formal role. This area needs further study and probably will be quite revealing.
Other cases, where women assumed formal roles as brewery owners, managers, or brewers, are not common but documented. There is the case of Susannah Oland in Canada. Another was a brewer in Leeds, England circa 1940 with the Corporation Tavern, Miss Charlotte Castleow.
Earlier known as Palace Hotel, it was associated to Charles Castleow, presumably her late father, or another relation. According to an April 22, 1940 report in the Evening Star of Washington, D.C., she brewed over 300 gal. of beer per week in the family brewery with a male assistant.
Another female brewer was the famous “Madame Rose”, of Liefman’s, in Belgium. No doubt there were more. War conditions may have brought some into North American and European brewhouses in the two World Wars, although I am not aware of a specific case (Castleow had worked in her brewery since childhood).
A Countess Brewer
Another case, previously unstudied to my knowledge, is the “Countess Brewer” of Kiev, Russia, now in Ukraine. In 1896, dozens of American newspapers printed an item that originated in the Philadelphia Record.
It stated a “Russian” countess owned and managed a brewery on her estate. The Naples Record printed it on February 5, 1896, see here (via Fulton Newspapers).
She was visiting a brewery in Berlin to learn details of pneumatic malting, as she wanted to install this in her brewery. She grew her own barley on “large acreage” and couldn’t get sufficient labour to work a traditional floor maltings (is the implication).*
The story stated she sent samples of her beer to the German brewer, who pronounced them equal to the best German and Bohemian beer. The report added, she was believed to be “the only woman brewer in Europe”.
The countess brewer is not named in the story. Who was she? I believe Rosa Maria Branicka, a member of a noble Polish family. She was often described by her married name, Rosa Maria Tarnowska (or Tarnowski).
Her husband, Count Stanislaw Tarnowski, was a well-known historian and literary figure.
A Countess Branicka is mentioned in Galina Ulianova’s (2009) Female Entrepreneurs in Nineteenth-Century Russia, at pp. 170-171:
The big landowner Countess Maria Branicka owned eleven enterprises in Kiev Province: four mills (all leased out), two distilleries, one brewery and four sugar beet plants.
Ulianova goes on to state that in 1897 these businesses employed a total of 2,010 workers and realized M 2.2 roubles.
I believe the determined-looking young woman pictured in the Geni site, described as Roza Maria Augusta Tarnowska (1854-1942), is the Countess brewer in American accounts and Ulianova’s book. In an ancestry website of the Branicka family she is described as a countess.
It appears her grandfather was Count Władysław Grzegorz Branicki, described as a Polish nobleman and general officer in the Russian army owning estates, a descendant of Catherine the Great.
The estates were, based on further checks, about 50 miles from Kiev. I believe Countess Branicka inherited some of the lands through her father, Konstanty.
I’ve approached the history with deliberation, as I do not read Polish, but believe the above accurate. Comments are (always) welcomed.
*This 1910 paper given in England by C.S. Meacham neatly explained the advantages of pneumatic malting over the older floor process.