The American “Beefsteak” – a Deeper Look


In a previous post, I suggested that the English Beefsteak Clubs (see the history laid out compactly by Wikipedia here) must have influenced the New York “beefsteak” dinner and creation of New York’s Beefsteak Club. The latter was associated with the Morgue, a 58th Street hall near a liquor store which often hosted beefsteaks in the 1890s.

A beefsteak is an informal, communal dinner, rooted in New York City and adjacent regions from the later-1800s until WW II. It has survived in some outlying regions, Passaic, NJ for example, and is now undergoing revival in Manhattan and other cities.

The beefsteak event was characterized by serving sliced steak on rounds of bread in basic surroundings. There were few accompaniments although beer – originally it was ale – was a sine qua non. 

The earliest accounts explain that men – the affairs were usually male-only until the 1930s – gathered in rude surroundings bereft of cutlery, tables and chairs, or even napkins. Empty crates or kegs were used as seats or, covered with towels, as rude tables. The towels served as napkins, in the fashion of some barbeque restaurants today.

While all classes of society indulged in beefsteaks, they were often associated with middle- and working class men. Business, historical, or political occasions provided the backdrop.



Food other than meat or bread was, in principle, minimalist, maybe just celery, or perhaps olives. A wider range might be offered depending on who gave the event, but a minimalist spirit prevailed. The meat was usually sirloin or sometimes tenderloin, not chops or roasts, which facilitated slicing and serving canapé-style.

Butter might feature, some accounts state the steaks were dipped in it, some say the bread was.

Sherry figured as an opening drink at some occasions, this was more an upscale flourish.

A course of lamb or mutton chops at the end of the meal also characterized many beefsteaks, giving rise to japes about “dessert”. One would think continued volleys of beef on bread would satisfy the carnivorous urge. Yet, for those who had stomach-room, a last fusillade from a different-calibre weapon was unleashed.

On Twitter, my attention was directed to an 1896 New York World story which credited the beefsteak phenomenon to a William Anton (Billy) Miller. He was a German immigrant who took over a bar called Shannon’s Corner in the 7th Ward. That area fronted on the East River, the Lower East Side, near docks,! butcher shops and meat processing factories. It was not a prosperous district, and saloons and taverns proliferated.

The World story was a detailed look at how Miller cooked steak and states nearby butchers brought him the best cuts to fete their good customers. His particular way of cooking and serving, which had the hallmarks of the later beefsteaks but on a smaller scale, was adopted by a wider public including for uptown “parties”.

I found a similar but not identical account in an 1893 New York Tribune story, but here Miller is called John Miller. I’m prepared to overlook the name inconsistency as the accounts otherwise broadly concur. Perhaps John was one of Billy’s sons. A known son, William S., later held beefsteaks in his carpentry shop using his father’s stove. A picture in the Museum of the City of New York website, see the fourth-to-last image, shows excellent detail including for the beer, as in this instances glasses were used not pewter or porcelain. The beer is dark with a thin white head, probably an ale of some kind.

The 1893 story adds interesting detail on how Miller’s idea spread, involving in part a name well-known to beer fans today – Yuengling.

Did Miller create the beefsteak party which later became a larger event with its essential features preserved?

It is possible, but a couple of points: We have to separate the dinner event from a club of the same name. I believe it unlikely that the albeit loosely-structured Beefsteak Club mentioned in the 1897 Tribune story I referenced yesterday was not inspired by the English Beefsteak Club.

Numerous press stories on mid-1800s New York and London clubs mention the London Beefsteak Club. See a detailed account in Troy, NY,  here. Other press accounts, in New York proper, reference the London Beefsteak Club between 1850 and 1900. None admittedly link it to the New York beefsteak fad, but that isn’t conclusive. For one thing, the world of clubmen and anything coming out of the 7th Ward would not have been connected in stories of this nature.

The point is, the English institution was certainly known in New York, despite the airy statement in the 1893 Tribune account that no such entity existed in Europe. The English club was originally connected to men of the stage. So was New York’s club mentioned. This suggests to me a London influence in the latter’s formation and purpose.

Whether the 58th Street Beefsteak Club created the dinner as a thing is less certain. The fact that two 1890s accounts credit Miller with the idea cannot be easily dismissed. Still, I don’t rule out that such accounts are “heroic” in nature. It can surprisingly difficult to trace the origins of a given food or drink even within one generation, let alone two. (Who really started the Cosmopolitan, Black IPA, poutine, the smoothie?).

Look at the elements of his meal: sliced steak on bread, sherry, ale, and celery, or as later grafted on. All are typically British foods and drinks. Why would a typical American, of the lower ranks of society, drink sherry before beer, for example? Why not whiskey, gin, or cocktail? Or nothing?

Miller, a German, took over an English or Irish-sounding bar. The bar may well have served steaks earlier. The history of the porterhouse steak, and the shared English and American appreciation for beef, underline the long importance beef in Anglo-American culture.

Miller may simply have evolved a particularly popular steak dinner vs. the larger, semi-public event associated with the term beefsteak. But even if Miller influenced the later New York beefsteak, the English elements to my mind, plus the communal/fraternal nature of the beefsteak, point to an influence of London’s Beefsteak Club and the British-American chophouse/porterhouse tradition in creating such events in New York.

Perhaps Miller contributed the idea of serving slices on bread rounds, and eating with one’s hands versus the conventional way to dine. Certainly Stateside, beefsteaks had non-English features but as I stated yesterday the core elements of the early-1700s English and later-1800s American meals are the same: beef, bread or potatoes, ale.

That, and the concurrent existence of London and New York beefsteak clubs suggest to me Miller does not have a decisive role in this story.

We know today that many iconic American drinks and foods have origins in England. Pulled pork does, the cocktail does, apple pie, bacon and eggs, pork and beans, the southern biscuit, it just goes on.

It is probably the same for the beefsteak as quasi-public dinner.

The Museum of the City of New York’s page on beefsteaks is careful to use a qualifying phrase in regard to Miller’s importance, it may be noted as well. Outlining the known history of his role, it states that “some accounts” indicate he created the beefsteak phenomenon.

But possibly Miller’s way with steak had some influence on what became an institution in New York.

I consulted by the way two (excellent) books on Google Books on the history of eating and restaurants in New York, one by William Grimes. I don’t find that they add anything to this discussion.

A third part to this discussion immediately follows.

Note re images: the first image was sourced at the Museum of the City of New York, here, and the second, from the menu archive of the New York Public Library,, here. Both are used for educational and research purposes. All intellectual property therein belongs solely to their lawful owners, as applicable. All feedback welcomed.