Poutine – Unlikely International Star

I’ve wanted for a while to set down some thoughts on the Quebec dish, poutine. Rather than approach it from the standpoint of the history of the dish including the (controversial) origins of the word poutine (poutine in Quebec French), I’d like to give my own experience with the dish, given I was born and raised in Montreal and only moved away in my mid-30’s.

Need I say poutine is a mixture of french fries, a meat-based gravy, generally from chicken or beef, and white cheddar cheese curds, the kind that are slightly salty and squeak on your teeth when very fresh.

For those interested in the general history and etymology, the Wikipedia entry is an excellent place to start. The information there is accurate based on what I have read for many years elsewhere. I’ll only add here that I believe the term poutine, meaning a group of (often different) things combined, was inherited from one or more regional French expressions. For example, in parts of the south of France, a poutine is a school of small fish. This usage could not have come from Quebec; the contrary is more persuasive. In turn, I believe the French word is probably a venerable gallicised version of the English pudding.

The Quebec poutine, before the term became associated with a French fry dish, was used in different parts of Quebec to mean different foods including “poutine à la poche“, described in Lorraine Boisvenue’s Le Guide De La Cuisine Traditionnelle Québécoise” (1979, Alain Stanké Limitée). This dish is included in her “Les Poudings” section and seems a boiled pudding on English lines. English cooking did influence a certain section of Quebec cuisine; still, this does not mean IMO that the word poutine in Quebec is of direct English derivation. If it was, the regional French (in France) usages of the term to mean, in different contexts, a stew, or mess of things (in a technical sense), wouldn’t make sense.

All that said, here is my own history with the dish. In a word, when I left Quebec in 1983, I had never heard of it! As one familiar with the fast foods beloved by all sections of Quebec society such as Michigan and steamed hot dogs, but also real Quebec food such as fèves au lard, la cipaille and les cretons, I had never seen anyone eat poutine and never heard the word. Not in Montreal, not in the Laurentian Mountains, not elsewhere in the Province in my travels. This does not mean of course it didn’t exist in Quebec – it did, from the late 50’s, starting possibly in Drummondville, a town within an hour’s drive of Montreal. But Montreal didn’t know the dish including the inexpensive restaurants known as “chip wagons” or the steamed hot dog places on St Laurent Blvd. The modest “tavernes” of Quebec didn’t sell poutine either. They did offer french fries with gravy though – clearly a progenitor of poutine.

At some point, the dish migrated from country to town, but how and when exactly is still the subject of ardent discussion and even contention.

Before that migration sometime in the 80’s, I am fairly certain that even in staunchly francophone districts in Montreal, no one knew a dish called poutine. If someone did serve it, it would have been a specialty of the house, offered in one or two places only, probably borrowed from something someone saw en province. I first heard of it later in the 1980’s as something you could buy from chip wagons in Ottawa. Ottawa is close to Quebec and counts many francophones amongst its resident and working population, so many typical Quebec foods can be found there or in the Ottawa market. Finally, on returning to Montreal for visits, I noticed the dish on the menus of modest restaurants.

Only later – the last dozen years or so – did the dish vault from Quebec and Canada into the international sphere and even into la haute cuisine. This is a most unlikely fate for any Canadian food but especially one as humble as poutine. Still, there is no accounting for these things. The rise of poutine is somewhat like the ascension of Buffalo chicken wings or much earlier, the Caesar salad, the hamburger. Etc.  Some things go around the world and become culinary fixtures. Others fizzle out – chicken in the basket with honey, say. But poutine and “wings” seem destined to endure.

I can count on the fingers of one hand the times I’ve had poutine. The best time was the first, from an Ottawa chip wagon – it was very good of its kind. I had it once from Harvey’s, the Canadian hamburger chain – pas si bonne, in my opinion. I may have it had twice more. It’s very caloric and sinfully rich – but then so is foie gras, I guess some would say.

Originally, Quebec cuisine was a fascinating inventory of old French dishes, e.g., the wonderful tourtière, a seasoned meat pie in a crust, and old English dishes, e.g. cipaille, which I wrote about years ago in Petits Propos Culinaires, an English food journal despite the French name. Cipaille – there are different spellings – derives IMO from the English seafaring dish, “sea pie”. Later, Italian, Greek and Jewish traditions contributed other elements: pizza, bagels, smoked meat, souvlaki. And so on in a wider arc today given the multi-cultural nature of Quebec society. Poutine cannot – in my view again – be counted on a par with any of these. But it put Quebec on the map so to speak, and who can quarrel with that.

N.B.  As a blog generally devoted to the study of beer and sometimes other drinks, one might wonder what I think pairs with poutine. Admitting again my relative unfamiliarity with the dish, I think soda pop is best. The dish originally was just french fries, and then fries and gravy (or fries and just the cheese curds in one account), and finally poutine as we know it. The chip wagons sold no alcohol, all the classic pops were the choice for french fries, les frites. And pop goes well with the derivative version of fries, poutine. Beer of course does too – here I’d hazard that a mainstream brew is best, not a richly hopped or malted craft beer. Quebec cider certainly goes well with fries, and possibly is best of all drinks with poutine. I suppose some would bruit sparkling wine or some kind of still wine, particularly with the kind of poutine that four star chefs work up. In the end, perhaps it doesn’t really matter what quaff goes with poutine, as long as it is wet and cold.


7 thoughts on “Poutine – Unlikely International Star”

  1. Hi Gary, a few comments, for fun:

    Drummondville, an isolated community in the Beauce region of Quebec, had an English-speaking influence. Drummondville is near the great international Asbestos mines of the past and many people there were among the first truly bilingual residents of Quebec, outside of Montreal, the Beauce being close to the American border and for many years an unprotected and relatively un-patrolled border. Many of my older Beauce friends speak English naturally and some tell me that they often used to hop over the bushes to the American side and socialize with our Southern friends on weekends. It’s also plausible that an “Anglais” group of British outsourced senior mine managers lived there and demanded from their cooks to prepare their nostalgic dish like “chips, cheese and gravy”. The British version of the story of poutine therefore holds together. But why would they have called it poutine?

    Off topic, but the street name is correctly called “de la Gauchetiere” not “la Gauchetiere”, the “de” meaning “from”. So the surname of the landlord to whom the street was named after was “de la Gauchetiere”. Gauchetiere sounds like a feminine noun to me, not a noun derived from an adjective, so I do not think a large Quebecois landlord would have been communist. He or his ancestors would probably have been granted large tracts of land by the Royal decree in England or France, I would surmise. However, you may be right, the word may have been fabricated to depict “from the leftmost third” i.e. “tiere” sounding like “one-third” in French. Maybe if the name was derived from a member of a legislative assembly, he would have sat on the side of the “left-leaning third of the room”, as assembly seating is according to political parties and ideology under the Parliamentary system. I still think someone somewhere has a Gauchetiere of some sorts rusting in their basement. It sounds like it should be a thing to me.

      • Merci, You are too kind, Gary. Oh and one last thing. Victoriaville is surrounded by farmland and cow pastures. It was known for good milk, great butter and I suppose they would have been into cheese also. Again, a plausible origin of poutine, since they had to somehow consume whatever cheese that wouldn’t sell, I presume. Cheers!

  2. Hi Gary, I enjoyed your poutine post a lot. Thanks! I remember years ago, perhaps in the1980’s, we discussed together the origin of poutine when you queried me. My unsatisfactory answer to you must have caused you to undergo a lot of fun research and pondering resulting in your well-written observations above.

    As you know, I grew up in Quebec so I will share my views: “toute la poutine” was an expression we often used to describe “the whole shebang” or the “whole kit and caboodle”. The expression was often used in many different contexts. Concurrently, some Quebecois housewives who were poor and didn’t have great refrigeration would save all the leftovers of meals in one jar or pot mixed randomly together. There could be noodles, pork, veal, lard, cheese, anything the kids of the household had left on their plates. Because it was a random mix of food, and because it was made up of everything left over, we called that dish when reheated it and eventually served back to the kids “toute la poutine”. There was no recipe. It was basically leftovers. Now I am not saying that’s the origin of the word poutine, but it definitely was the way the word was used in Quebecois food when I grew up. Note that “poutine” was not used back then as a word by itself. it was part of the expression “toute la poutine”.

    As for just the word “poutine” when used alone by itself, I always supposed that, somewhere along the way, some clever chip truck decided to make “fresh” poutine, imitating the American “fries with gravy” and added cheese curds. He (or her), out of necessity of giving it a name, probably called it “poutine” for lack of any French word for the concoction and it may have reminded him (or her) of “toute la poutine” that Mothers served. I am not saying that’s correct, I can only surmise.

    Now, for fun, what is a “Gauchetiere” as used in the famous Montreal Street name? Besides being the name of a landlord, what does the word actually mean, you think?

    • Hi Jean-Pierre, great to hear from you and thanks for sharing all this wonderful information. Given your roots “pure laine” this is a most valuable addition to the lore concerning poutine!

      Do Americans eat chips or fries with gravy? Maybe. The British have a dish called, “chips, cheese and gravy”, the cheese used is a cheddar of some kind (a U.K. cheese originally), so maybe the British influenced this dish somehow although origins in Drummondville or Victoriaville, QC, very francophone in the 1950’s, don’t really suggest that I think. Apparently chips, cheese and gravy is the national dish of Isle of Man! But whether it tastes like our version I can’t say.

      As for Rue De La Gauchetiere in Montreal, I can’t imagine, I always assumed it was a surname but since “gauche” means left, was it someone known for communistic views? 🙂 Please advise if you know.

      Kind regards.


Comments are closed.

%d bloggers like this: