How to Brew at Sea
As I mentioned earlier, the Royal Navy’s floating brewery plan of WW II has received attention from beer researchers and historians. Our interest is more on the technical side of the plan, of which more below.
First some general background. George Adlam, an old-established brewing engineering works in Fishponds, Bristol, was selected by the Admiralty to create the design. Adlam’s was one of a number of firms in Bristol that offered these services, extending to equipment design and fabrication and architectural planning.
A 2010 study by the Brewery History Society, for English Heritage,* has good background on the history of both brewery design and commercial brewing in Bristol. If we factor that Bristol was a major port, the selection of Adlam was a natural choice.
The study noted of the firm:
George Adlam, a Bristol company, was established around 1800 as a brewery production plant manufacturer, and became one of the best known firms of brewers’ engineers in the country during the latter part of the 19th century. As brewers’ architects, the firm’s first recorded brewery design dated from 1885, but Adlam’s would certainly have fulfilled this function in earlier years. The firm, which eventually became George Adlam & Sons Ltd, had large engineering works at three sites in Bristol in the early 20th century; it finally went out of business in 1965.
This 1947 article, in the Journal of the Institute of Brewing, offered a concise account of Adlam’s design for the only ship that got afloat with it, HMS Menestheus. Mainly it summarized a colour documentary film of the project. I wish I could link the film but it seems not available online. Still, anyone in London, once the museums will open, may view the film at the Imperial War Museum (IWM). See details of the holding, here.
(One has to be impressed with the concise yet readable account in a technical journal of the day. It’s the perfect midpoint between the discursive 19th century style and today’s lapidary, PowerPoint influenced style).
The Brown in the account had been employed by Truman’s brewery in London. He became an officer in the Naval Reserve to operate the brewery on ship.
Briant and Harman, a firm of analytical chemists, are mentioned as the film’s producers. Harold Harman was long-associated with the Institute of Brewing, see this compact summary of his career. In his mid-60s at the time, he was outside the range for military service but ideally suited by occupational background and organizational ability to handle this project.
Notable points of the brewing include use of malt extract and hop concentrate (exact type not stated, maybe distilled hop oils), closed fermentation, and use of distilled sea water. Heat for the brewing kettle came from the ship’s boilers, an early example of the recycling technology so lauded today – it’s not new.
I suspect the beer may have tasted like much microbrewery beer of 30 years ago that used malt extract. Most of it, by my memory, wasn’t that good with a tell-tale, “chlorine” note. However, I understand malt extract has much improved since that time.
Perhaps too the Admiralty and Adlams made particular efforts to ensure a quality product. Of course, anything resembling fresh beer would have been well received by HM Forces.
The IWM summary of the film (see link above) added additional points of interest:
View of white-painted MV Menestheus in port (presumably at Hebburn-on-Tyne after return in 1946 from maiden cruise from Vancouver via Far East to UK) introduces detailed views of the technical processes and equipment necessary to brew beer at sea. Diagrammatic flowsheet dated 31 August 1945 summarises the elements of brewing: distillation plant, dissolving vessel for malt extract, hop concentrate, fermenting vessel (Head Brewer Lieutenant Commander George Brown RNVR pointing), Bright Beer Tank, container filling, pasteuriser and container cold room … Technical examination of installation concludes with view of Lieutenant Ken Morison and Captain Peter Purkis consuming English Mild Ale at 9d per pint on ‘the world’s only floating brewery’ in the ship’s own Davy Jones bar.
It seems that flow sheet, or another technical description of the brewery, is also available at IWM, authored by Tarrant Hobbs: see details here.
One wonders why pasteurization was thought necessary for a draught product, or one dispensed fairly quickly. In the wake of VE Day the war in the Pacific was thought likely to be a long, hard struggle, and the beer was meant for consumption in the Far East.
This further account, from the site War History Online, states that the beer was meant to be transferred to other ships and stations for service to forces – not just served on the Menestheus, that is.
Such factors suggest why pasteurization was done, to ensure the beer’s stability in a hot climate under variable handling conditions.
In the result, the atomic bombing of Japan ended the war summarily, in September 1945. Hence, the one ship that got afloat with its mild ale returned to Britain in 1946. The baby brewery was soon dismantled. The ship was restored to civilian purposes at the Blue Funnel line, where it had started service in 1929. Due to an on-ship fire off the coast of Mexico in 1953, she was scrapped at Baltimore, Maryland that year.
Quite remarkably, a picture of Menestheus leaving Vancouver for its Far East mission survives.
I might add: Menestheus was a mythical King of Athens. In the matter of ships, famously he is associated with those painted black, the ones he brought to Troy. The colour scheme during the war was grey for its minelaying role, then white for the South Pacific tour. The ship was painted a sleek black though when launched as a cargo liner in 1929 by Alfred Holt’s Blue Funnel Line. See in general on the ship, the entry in Red Duster, the website of the Merchant Navy Association.
Note: The concluding part of this post explains the relocation of the de-commissioned brewery – to the Middle East. See Part II.
Note re image: The above image is from this Wikipedia account of HMS Menestheus. All intellectual property therein belongs solely to the lawful owner, as applicable. Used for educational and historical purposes. All feedback welcomed.
*A previous version of this post misstated the report’s authorship. Thanks to Tim Holt for indicating the correct information. Tim is editor of the Brewery History Society’s journal, Brewery History.