In my Part I, I noted that hard data proved elusive to substantiate my tentative conclusion that lager trumped ale and stout in popularity in 1950s Iraq.
It was not for want of looking, but lack of access currently to a real library makes it harder to find data.
Nonetheless, I did find a couple of interesting statistics, and may add to it here if more can be found. The (1953) Iraq: Economic and Commercial Conditions, a publication of H.M. Stationary office, stated that a brewery of British design went into production in August 1948. Further, in 1950-1951 it produced 2,200 thousand L (or 2,200,000 L).
I calculate that this produces 13,443 bbl (Imp). This brewery was of course The Iraq Brewery as I explained earlier. Its output at the time was ale and stout only, as lager was not produced until 1962.
The Annual Statement of Trade of the United Kingdom for 1951 states that the U.K. exported to Iraq in 1951 3,763 bulk barrels of beer. Of course this did not include Ireland, and we know Guinness was shipping stout to Iraq, as seen earlier.
Still, even with Ireland, the total from the British Isles probably did not exceed 5,000 bulk barrels. Interestingly, a bulk barrel is not an Imperial barrel. The term is a freight term, and denotes five cubic feet.
The Imperial barrelage sent to Iraq by the U.K. equates to a lower figure by my conversion, 3,255 bbl Imperial. Again, even with Irish stout nothing that would approximate local production.
Part of that U.K. export figure, unlike for Ireland, was lager, perhaps the majority but we don’t know the percentage.
We don’t know of course either how much beer came in from Europe. We have seen that European lager was increasingly available through the 1950s. Belgian Pilsor, from Lamot, was imported as early as 1948 and a Dutch lager, Antelope, in 1949.
If European lager imports equalled in 1951 the U.K./Irish exports, perhaps the total was 10,000 bbl (Imp). That is still under the domestic production represented by The Iraq Brewery.
I believe the tide must have turned later in lager’s favour. First, we have seen that the second brewery to start production in Iraq, The Eastern Brewery, debuted its Ferida lager in 1956.
That beer was heavily advertised (it is still made).* Eastern Brewery probably did at least as well if not better than The Iraq Brewery by the time of the July 1958 Revolution. Further, we have seen how numerous Dutch, German, and UK lagers were imported through the 1950s with ale and stout seemingly in decline, or so I judged by the tenor of adverts in the expatriate press.
On top of this, as I documented earlier, an emigre Iraqi brewer discussed brewery history with an Irish Times journalist in 2006. He stated The Iraq Brewery’s stout did poorly and this caused the brewery to make lager, which it first released (by my verification) in 1962.**
The brewer did not say “ale” but I suspect ale was not going great guns either by the later 1950s. If anything, lager is the putative replacement for ale, not stout.
Additional data, of course, might prove me wrong in some of these suppositions. Based, however, also on my earlier work examining beer markets in other parts of the world where Britain had a presence, I would think lager had the majority of the Iraq market by the late 1950s.
True, by then imports were banned so it was two domestic companies sharing the market, a new set of circumstances. But still, I think it likely The Eastern Brewery was outpacing The Iraq Brewery, hence presumably why the latter decided to make a lager.
The departure of almost all British military personnel in the country by the mid-1950s likely also boosted the fortunes of lager. Britons, especially H.M. Forces, were good consumers of the traditional ale and stout. Once they left…***
The fact that Amstel of Holland arranged licensed production with The Eastern Brewery in 1962, for lager of course, seems to validate all this. Amstel, not Bass or Guinness, did that.
However one looks at it, it seems fair to conclude that as Iraq acceded to full independence in the late 1950s, not just constitutionally but de facto, lager beer achieved critical mass both there and in erstwhile metropole.
It would take longer to capture a majority of the U.K. market than in former colonies and demesnes, but Sally Vincent’s sparkling feature of 1960 foretold the future.
*The beer is currently styled Farida in English, see website.
**Taken literally it may seem the brewery started with stout. My study suggests Diana Ale (or Diana Beer) came first. Diana Stout followed a couple of years later.
***The last Forces departed from RAF Habbaniya in 1959. See in Military Wiki.