A Yin and Yang of Brewing

Not quite in haste, but as travels loom some quick notes on two beers that to my mind sum up the best of the old and new schools of brewing.

They are, Holsten Festbock, a dark brown bock at 7% ABV, and Hopsta La Vista, a 6.5% ABV from Longslice Brewing in Toronto.

The first shines with its rich malt character, molasses-like even though the beer is pure malt and hops. Holsten is based in Hamburg since 1879 and part of Carlsberg today. Hamburg is hardly a storied centre of bock brewing, that province belongs to the south, Bavaria.

But Holsten’s is one of the best I’ve had anywhere, and recalls surely too a time when all beers were maltier. One or two beer types apart, e.g., Lambic/sours, 19th-century IPA, perhaps unblended aged porter, all beers were once maltier.

Just as the late Canadian-American beer legend Bert Grant once stated that all beers used to be hoppier, they also used to be maltier. The two traits together made beer to all intents and purposes what it was.

Today, many beers still meet the bill, especially under conditions of the beer revival, but they are not always easy to find. The adjunct/light/dry/ice waves in brewing internationally, say from the 1950s-1990s, had their impact on craft brewing, too. Hop character was brought back (frequently) by craft brewing but malt character is sometimes neglected despite frequent use of all-malt mashes.

One reason is attenuations, or the degree to which fermentation is allowed to proceed, are often still too thorough, for our taste that is.

Hopsta la Vista, a craft IPA, offers a pleasing rich clean malt character, almost shortbread-like. And the big hop character is a given. It’s also a reliable beer, changing little since inception some years ago.

The two are a yin and yang as despite being opposites historically and commercially they are in perfect synch as representing the best the beer world can offer.

I understand the Holsten is only flash-pasteurized today, which brings its character more in line with craft. Craft or artisan beer generally skips any form of pasteurization, a process many consider has some impact on beer character.

There is a wealth of good beer to choose from today, and you will rarely go wrong dipping into the craft world – there is very little bad beer, as opposed, say to 25 years ago. But choosing well offers the best chance of a great experience.

A local IPA I’d class with Hopsta is Boneshaker IPA from Amsterdam Brewery. Its honeyed-like malt quality offers again a taste of old-time beer, malt that enriches and gladdens both fibre and soul.


A Gentleman’s Home – and Tavern

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, August, 1933, ran a builder’s advertisement for a high-class residence in Long Island. The ad reads like a free verse poem:

A Gentleman’s Home

Rockville Center, L.I.
At the Golf Course.
We have just created a new type home.
A Gentleman’s Home.
English Architecture, Colonial plan.
Stone, brick, cement and timber.
Tree shaded front terrace.
Center foyer entrance hall.
One step down living room.
Exposures east, south and west.
Massive stone fireplace.
Heavy beamed ceiling.
Rough textured, tinted walls.
Built-in, recessed boot shelves

A British design ethos flavoured upscale, post-WW I suburban development, down to the adjacent golf course – still Scottish in American minds then.

Basement English. Tavern room.
Embedded stained timber walls.
Built-in bar and lounge.
Modern, efficient laundry room…

For arrivistes and others with deep pockets who found “basement English” and “Tavern room” unclear, the “built-in bar and lounge” would have reassured.

The aesthetic is known as “country club”. It marries architectural, landscape, and decorative motifs of vaguely British origin with all modern conveniences, down in this case to the Shlage locks and “scientific kitchen”.

The builder was Levitt & Sons. Ring a bell? Levittown. The famous, affordable-suburb template, studied since the 1950s by sociologists and cultural historians, was just one arrow in the Levitts’ quiver. They specialized in country estate development as well, for a more monied demographic.

The depiction in the Daily Eagle ad shows Tudor Revival strapwork and peaked roofing, similar to the 1923 hotel in Niagara Falls, NY I discussed yesterday.

There are many residences of this type in Toronto, most built around the same time. Toronto was propitious for the concept given its strong British identification in the early 1900s. Some of these homes probably featured tavern rooms, too.

Needless to say, this is not the tavern Archie Bunker and cohorts frequented. Long Island’s recessed home tavern and the Manhattan commercial equivalents were stylized versions of an English original, imagined by American designers as conveying comfort and tradition with an Arcadian flavour.

If you were of British ancestry lolling in a Rockville Center home tavern, or having a Martini with a client in the Midtown equivalent, the experience was perhaps heightened. The average American aspiring to buy these beautiful residences was probably not of this background, or was of mixed heritage, as typical of the American social pattern.

Still, the imagery was potent and clearly aroused the response anticipated. The long prestige of things British had burgeoned as memories of the American Revolution faded. Allied cooperation during the 1917-1918 war probably only helped.

British cultural prestige crested here in the last 30 years as North America has gained, or regained, its own confidence.

The emblems of Britannia are being forgotten or at least have been blurred. The European Union and globalization have weakened British culture and notions of British civilization imbued in every schoolchild in Canada until recently, and transmitted culturally and intellectually to earlier generations of Americans. Times change.

What of Rockville Center, L.I. today? A 2014 article in the New York Times described it as an “urbanized suburb”, and a “mini-Manhattan”.  Shown in the piece is a handsome, 1931 Tudor residence that might have been built by the Levitts. Their buildings are still there; their FDR-era vision of an English Arcadia transplanted for stockbroker Americnsa, amply fulfilled. The patina of age since the 30s just makes it better…

As to taverns and tavern drinks, the India Pale Ale bequeathed by Britain to America did return after a near-disappearance, but the composition has altered. They even drink our kind in Blighty now, redolent of dank gardens, grapefruit, and guava.

A last word goes to the 1930s lyricist of Long Island:

Tennis, beaches, riding academy.
Motor parkway and lake.
Thirty-two minutes to Manhattan.
The complete price.
Ten Thousand Five Hundred.
May be inspected any time.
Yours until sold.



Tudor on the Niagara

A 1923 article in the Niagara Falls Gazette described the genesis of an English-style inn in Niagara Falls, New York. The story is unusually lengthy for the regional press, and smoothly written.

It illustrates well the continued, even growing appeal of the “olde English inn” in the American social pattern. In 1923 a hotel rose on the site of a demolished German-American hotel, the Kaltenbach, renowned since before the century.

The new establishment was – and is today – the Red Coach Inn, whose peaked roof rises o’er the rapids of the American Falls.



Tudor Revival had a marked influence in American cities due to the implied gentility. While the Red Coach did not feature a cozy English taproom due to National Prohibition, the decor gave vent in other ways to the English hostelry of fervent American imagination.

From the article:

Mounting a circular staircase to the second floor the guest is ushered into a most inviting parlor off which there is a ladies’ retiring room. The furnishing of this suite of reception rooms is rich and striking, the lounges and chairs being in quaint old fashioned chintz, the walls in panels delicately tinted in soft, harmonious colors. The same holds true in the guest chambers throughout the inn. The walls are adorned with rare old English prints.

On this floor is the French dining salon which is a dream of quiet refinement. The color motif on walls, panels and ceilings is French grey, the hangings in chintz and the tables and chairs in old colonial style. The china and silverware were made expressly for this establishment, all china having a picture of the coach and four with the words “Red Coach Inn”. The silverware, as well as the blankets, spreads, towelling, bed and table linen, have the monogram of the inn marked on them. The bedrooms are designed to furnish every comfort to the guest. The furniture is actually sumptuous. The beds in single and double are in Tiffany bronze effect with rich floral ornamentations. The dressers and other appointments are of like character.

The writing mingles ideas of genteel English living with a romanticized Colonial period. All is suggestive of a fixed order, serenity, and timeless beauty.

A Red Coach Inn had existed in Niagara Falls in the early 1800s, when coaching inns were vital to American life. Building a new one drew on local history to boot – a win-win-win for the developer.

Building and decorative styles of recognized authority convey gravitas, and status. In a later period Victoriana was adapted to similar effect (in Britain too), the sooty patina left behind.



In 1930s America the English inn or tavern idea gained increased favour with many new, or renovated, restaurants, bars, and hotels. This appealed to the upwardly mobile and extracted lucre from their deepening pocketbooks.

Everybody Was Happy – in the strata of society not riven by depression of course, or otherwise excluded from mainstream life.

With repeal of Prohibition in 1933 the Red Coach Inn could now serve liquor. The hotel went from strength to strength, assisted by the world reputation of Niagara Falls as a holiday destination.

And so the same hotel thrives today. Pictured are two images from its website.

The Gazette noted that the hotel’s manager, who had worked at the Kaltenbach, had many friends in Toronto and anticipated their patronage anew. Perhaps a further clue why a British-inspired design was favoured.

In America then and until recently “Canada” connoted the idea of “British”, except for the Quebec part.

World War I made German motifs unfashionable, and Art Deco was yet to make an impact. A British scheme struck the right chords for a new hotel in The Honeymoon Capital of the World.

By now, the historic enmity to John Bull deriving from the American Revolution had subsided. Britain stood, or again, as a social and cutural model for aspirant Americans.

August Janssen, a German-American restaurateur who owned the famed Hofbrau Haus in Manhattan, capitalized on this appeal in 1939. He created an “old English tavern” as sister establishment for his baronial Germanic restaurant.

It is easy to imagine he anticipated resentment deepening in New York against things German, and sought a hedge for his business. More on him soon.

Note re images. The images shown are from the source identified and linked in the text. Used for educational and research purposes. All intellectual property therein belongs solely to the lawful owner. All feedback welcomed.




Ebon Wine of Malt

Based on various older sources for storing beer, i.e., English ones from the mid-1800s, I occasionally do a solera-style “barrel” program where I fill a large jug with different beers and seal it for a time.

Sometimes I drink from it and top it up, especially if it is going too flat.

For the pint of beer shown, I used a full-size growler and must have had seven or eight beers in there. Some were flat but none were spoiled. One was Belgian, Chimay I think (red capsule), there was an IPA with a strong U.S. hop accent, and then some lagers and ales of various kinds. And a porter or two.

After topping up a couple of times, I left it over the summer, at room temperature, and broached it only the other day.

It was very fizzy and gushed slowly over the top even after pouring some out.

The beer was on the dry side, chocolatey with a unified savour, quite bitter, and very tasty. No acetic notes whatever, and no funky Brettanomyces taste that I could detect. Maybe there was the faintest lactic note, a fruity kind of tang.

It was absolutely superb, probably similar to some “sound old” porter stored in the vats or cisterns of the bygone London porter-brewers. I could see people drinking it as such, or blended with younger, sweeter beer.

The strong Belgian yeast notes and emphatic American hop notes were almost completely transformed by the long secondary fermentation from the cocktail of yeasts in there. The end result was just … good.

You can tell the yeasts did something unusual as the layer of cream on the beer subsisted hours after being poured (I topped it with a saucer-bottom to drink in small amounts over a couple of days). It kept a lot of fizz, too, refusing to go flat.

If I had to choose one term to describe the taste, I would say “black wine”, a term used in the pre-nitrogen dispense days to describe Guinness, in fact.

For those who know Cahors, the black wine of the Lot valley, it was rather the beer equivalent, un cousin germain.

Unibex and its Saviour

Saint Michael

In August 1948 the Leader Republican, a small-town newspaper in New York State, carried this wire dispatch:

Belgian Brewers Make Drive for World Trade

BRUSSELS –  Belgium brewers have organised an association, “Unibex” (Union des Brasseries Belges d’Exportation), to push the sale of Belgian beer abroad. They plan to produce a standard beer of controlled density, which will keep well even in the tropics.

M. Jean Grofils, President of Unibex, speaking at a luncheon here, said Belgium had lost a large part of the export market abandoned by the Germans and Japanese, because the government had ruled after the liberation that the home market must be supplied first. As a result, he claimed, the thirsty in America and Africa were drinking Dutch beer out of Belgian bottles.

“As for the Belgian Congo,” he added, “we are selling there, but we have just learned that in a little while we shall again meet a competitor, whom we had believed eliminated for a long time. I mean German beer, paid for in dollars.”

M. Grosfils also complained that of 30 commercial agreements which Belgium had signed with other countries since the war, only one – that with England – contained a “drop” of beer.

It seems likely Unibex was absorbed into one of the current Belgian beer associations, maybe Belgian Brewers.

Belgian beer-makers, like their Dutch counterparts and famously Heineken and Amstel, early grasped the importance of selling beer overseas. On paper Belgium was well-poised to take advantage of the post-WW II international market. Compared to its war-damaged neighbours, Belgium was rather better off coming out of the war. According to this 1948 news report:

… Belgian losses in the war were not large. Like England, thickly-peopled, Belgium lives by foreign trade, importing raw materials and food and exporting manufactured goods. Assisted by America in particular, Belgium obtained certain raw materials soon after liberation, which enabled factories to start production. Foreign demand for goods has given Belgium the advantages of a seller’s market. Coal output which affects industrial production at every turn, of course, has been remarkably stepped up by granting special financial and social welfare inducements to Belgian miners and by bringing in foreign workers. Belgium’s own yield of coal is being supplemented by imports from the [German] Ruhr Valley. And the trade of the African Congo colony, much increased during the war, has a significant bearing on the well being of the Belgian motherland. Belgians are aware that the economic health of their country is closely bound up with world conditions.

Yet, as the Leader Republican explained, when Belgians contacted likely markets after WW II Dutch beer was already there and doing nicely, especially in the U.S. But even worse, an indignity was being played out in Belgium’s own colony in Africa, the Congo: German brewers were looming, with U.S. money paying for their exports, only three years after the crushing defeat of 1945.

How did they do it? The money came from the ERP, or Economic Recovery Program – better known as the Marshall Plan. Under the Plan, which inaugurated in July 1948, the United States made both grants and loans to various European countries, including Belgium.

I would think either ERP funds were loaned to African buyers to guarantee payment to the German exporters, or perhaps some money was paid to brewers to help them refurbish and buy supplies. In any case, one can see that Belgium was nonplussed to find its former occupier now facing it in the commercial export arena.

(The Belgian Congo is now of course the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which gained independence in 1960).

The Unibex plan to export a standard beer of “controlled density” envisaged clearly a Heineken-like product: stable, pasteurized, a blonde lager, one ideally suited warm climates. In fact, Belgium did send such beers overseas in the 1950s.

Occasionally in U.S. retailer ads in the 1960s and 70s in the pre-craft era, examples of such beers appear. See for example this list of 1959 in the Times-Union in Albany, which included Ekla, a Belgian lager. Belgian beers, lagers and others, were also reviewed in beer books written by immediate pre-craft authors such as Michael Weiner and Jim Robertson.

Yet for some reason the Dutch, and Heineken, captured the American fancy for imported beer in this period. Various German, Canadian, and Mexican beers competed with varying degrees of success, but Belgium was not a player until relatively recently. The purchase of Anheuser-Busch to form Belgian-controlled Anheuser-Busch In Bev in particular gave an impetus to Stella Artois, but the path had been laid by the success of Belgian specialty beers from abbey beers to West Flanders red ales.

This 2011 article in the Economist outlined various factors to explain the turnaround of world affections for Belgian beer, including the consolidation impact exemplified by the international expansion of AB In Bev.

Yet, it fails to mention the most significant factor (IMO) in this development: the author Michael Jackson via a number of his books but none more important than The World Guide to Beer in 1977. The deftly-written essays and evocative photography delineating a hitherto unknown Belgian beer ethos created an avidity to know and understand these beers. Soon Jackson inspired other writers who broadened the message he first delivered.

Beers that were sourish to the taste were henceforth prized as gastronomic specialties, whereas in the 19th century, most visitors dismissed them as retrograde and anchored in primitive practices. Of numerous examples to cite, this one, from English writer W. Beatty-Kingston in 1890, will suffice.

Before Jackson, there was a scattering of articles in the U.S. press and some recognition in a couple of beer books that Belgium had a beer culture of note. See one press example here from 1964 in Camden, NY. Yet, nothing that would have blossomed into the vibrant reputation Belgium enjoys today where 70% its production is exported and adds considerably to the national balance of payments. Lisa Bradshaw reviewed the recent data in Flanders Today.

Unibex would have swooned to have that result. M. Grosfils would have found it curious too that initial success was based, not on a standard lager, but local, half-disappeared styles such as Trappist beers, lambics, Wits, and other exotica as distant from the Unibex “silver bullet” as one could imagine.

Stella Artois is of course today a growing force in the premium international lager segment, so Unibex was right in a sense, but that growth came in the wake of the romance Jackson created for Belgian beer. Without that groundwork, Belgium would be one of a number of European countries vying for sales internationally and likely well behind Germany, Denmark, and Holland with no cachet, moreover, attached to its beers.

Arguably today Belgium has trumped those other countries’ reputations internationally for beer quality and interest, even Germany. Germany today is perhaps, in beer terms, the Belgium of 1948!

It proves what I’ve said many times: in Shelley’s famous phrase, “poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world”. Not just “poets” whose courage and imagination excite and change taste, but voices “unacknowledged” for their gift to humanity in the fullest sense.

Of course, Jackson was acknowledged by his peers and followers, was indeed a star in his lifetime, but I am speaking in relative terms. By 2011, the Economist could write the article it did and leave him out. Not that one can blame them really, times change, culture is altered permanently, people forget or never knew how it started.

Unibex had the right idea in 1948, but had challenges from experienced international businesspeople based in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Bremen, Munich, and Copenhagen. It needed a poet to sing the soul of beer. He or she wasn’t in purview in 1948 when the imaginative and luminous of temperament were second fiddle to practical plans to restore a functioning world order.

But the saviour did finally come, in the form of Michael Jackson (1942-2007), and that is why in 1994 the Belgian state awarded to Jackson its Mercurius award for service to Belgian brewing. No less than a Crown Prince, Philippe of Belgium, now its King, presented the honour to him.


Food Fight?

Eventually most New Yorkers tire of the peacock fripperies of the gaudy cafes. There is something irritating to the true trencher­ man, about people who come to a restaurant to be seen more than to express a zest for food. Like that professional society party thrower who bounces from table to table, halooing across the room and otherwise trying to be the whole show! The practised gourmet studiously avoids such places. When he dines out you will find him at rendezvous rarely mentioned in society chit-chat. Dark-timbered sherry and beef havens with old prints, and perhaps a collection of steins racked around the wall. Instead of shrieking jazz, the clatter of knives and forks and the tinkle of glass. No roster of the “small hour” blades, but diners who know the cut of a steak and when a goblet of rare port or a tankard of nut brown ale are a help and not a refuge. These ancient, sturdy places keep their hold in the midst of eternal change.

The above was penned by Manhattan-based columnist O.O. McIntyre (1884-1938) in 1937, in the Endicott Daily Bulletin. McIntyre was Missouri-born and had a unique take on the Big Apple, never fully part of it, which accounted for his singular and appealing perspective.

The cultural references he is making pertain to my ongoing theme, which is the staying power of a certain idea of British eating and drinking place in North American life.

Even though in our day the steak house aka chop house goes in and out of fashion, the fundaments of what he is saying have a certain resonance. Think of the potency of the English/Irish/Scottish pub concept in the last 30 years. (To us it’s all the same thing really).

The dark timbers are still there, in other words. The nut-brown ale, too – it helped spawn craft beer by god. Both are frequently mass-produced somewhere, but it doesn’t really matter. It’s the symbolism that counts.

Due to population changes the restaurant standbys of 2018 can include Chinese, Middle East, Thai, Italian, curry, diner. But apart from the culinary base expanding, does the true eater enjoy his/her “old reliables” more than the name chefs, the new trends, the hot addresses?

I’m not sure about the binary he puts forth. Demographic counts, for one thing. But even for his target reader, the big city “sophisticate”, is what he says true?  What do you think?

Obs. Note how McIntyre uses the compendious term “cafe” to describe the foreign and inauthentic in his eyes. As late as the 1940s the term still carried this connotation here.

Note re quotation: quotation above is drawn from the archived news sources identified and linked in the text (via New York State Historical newspapers). All intellectual property therein belongs solely to the lawful owner, as applicable. Used for educational and historical purposes, and fair comment. All feedback welcomed.

Britain’s Most Distinguished Licensee

In the 1930s the “English tavern” was a gauzy, feel-good concept in American eyes. It denoted comfort and homeyness but also gentility. Somewhat discordant elements, but it worked. I’ll return to this theme later with examples of new English taverns in 1930 New York’s concrete canyons and urbanized beach resorts. For now, I’ll elucidate elements of the model Americans followed.

In truth of course, the tavern, inn, taproom, call it what you will was as old as America. The British founded the principal American colonies, or took them over early as Manhattan, and provided the major cultural impetus that extended to resorts of hospitality, as the tavern.

The comfy place where one could sip punch, flip, cider, or ale before a roaring fire was venerable and enduring. This benign side co-existed with the later, more suspect idea that the saloon and cocktail bar corroded public values. The Janus-face never departed the folk memory (to this day) but each facet in different eras was more or less prominent.

Certainly in the late 1800s and early 1900s news accounts of both British and American taverns tempered the older affection with realism on the tavern’s dangers. This was the result of a long process of temperance agitation, so that alcohol’s role in society acquired by this time a conditional status.

By the 1930s, the tavern rebounded in prestige. Post-Prohibition, English taverns so-called proliferated in the major cities and in basements of tony suburban homes.

The fashion then was perhaps rivalled only by the Irish pub craze of the last 30 years. Stories in the press burnished and consecrated the older image, and what better model than “Britain’s most distinguished licensee”. She was no less a Prime Minister’s socially-prominent daughter, Ishbel MacDonald.

This Pathe clip shows crisply that she had bought an inn in Speen, Buckinghamshire, The Plow. She had married a local villager, to boot.

He died 15 years later and she remarried. Sadly, the second husband died only three years later. Ishbel finally returned to the family hearth of Scotland, passing away in 1982.

By all reports she was a remarkable person, and must indeed have been the perfect pub manager. Her mother had died young so Ishbel became the chatelaine for her father Ramsay McDonald, honing her clearly innate social skills to the max. She had the personal touch long before the today’s crop of commoners who marry into royalty.

A 1938 press story in the Philadelphia Inquirer dished details of running the pub and marrying the first husband, Norman Ridgely. It dazzled American readers with an upstairs-downstairs tableau. Villagers who had fretted that Ishbel’s “breeding” would alter the tone of Saturday nights at the pub were soon converted by her winning manner.

In truth, Ramsay MacDonald was born to humble origins, which he overcame in social terms but not financially. Ishbel’s management skills helped run the household at 10 Downing Street efficiently, as Ramsay had no independent fortune. The experience gained surely helped her keep The Plow on a sound financial footing.

The pub endured for many years after Ishbel retired to the MacDonald seat in Lossiemouth. In the last 30 years or so it functioned mainly as a stylish restaurant, serving a chic clientele in the Chilterns. Today, it is a private residence.

The image above is from a second Pathe clip and pictures the alert, good-looking hostess with the handsome townsman Ridgley.

Note re image: Image above was sourced as noted and linked in the text. All intellectual property therein belongs solely to the lawful owner, as applicable. Image used for educational and historical purposes, and for fair comment. All feedback welcomed.

Butter Tarts in North America

[Note added October 19, 2019: The original version of this post was published on November 6, 2018. The text as it appears below reflects edits made to November 29, 2018. An expanded, fully referenced version has now been published in the U.K.-based (English-language) journal, Petits Propos Culinaires, issue #114, June 2019. The journal, edited by British food authority Tom Jaine, is not available online but copies may be purchased from PPC’s office. For all details, see the publisher’s website, prospectbooks.co.uk].


Below, I discuss both the Canadian and U.S. histories pertaining to the butter tart.*

To my knowledge, the U.S. history has not been previously canvassed. While I have utilized many sources, the U.S. references were selected mainly from digitized, historical archives of northeast U.S. newspapers. Despite the regional tilt, I believe my survey and conclusions have more general application.

In addition, this tour d’horizon provides an interesting “compare and contrast” with Canadian butter tart history.

Summary of Canadian History

The Canadian history has been discussed in general and specialist culinary books, articles, papers, encyclopedias, and blogs. The relevant earlier sources are spread among a number of these resources from our survey.

This account written by the County of Simcoe, Ontario explains well that a “filling for tarts” recipe appeared in the Royal Victoria Cook Book published in Barrie in 1900 by the Royal Victoria Hospital’s Woman’s Auxiliary. The recipe was contributed by a Mrs. Malcolm MacLeod of that city. Her own first name was Mary, all as explained in the link. She did not employ the term butter tarts, but her recipe is clearly that, sans the name.

Her filling of sugar, eggs, butter, and currants baked in pastry shells makes a classic Canadian butter tart albeit countless variations exist. Some use vinegar or lemon juice, some add nuts of some kind, the sucrose content can be from different types of sugars and syrups, and vanilla or other flavouring can be added.

A Toronto “Breakfast TV” journalist recreated this Ur-recipe earlier this year. The result (efficiently produced by the unflappable chef!) is clearly the modern butter tart, as earlier researchers have attested. Still, Mary MacLeod did not use the name.

Which is the first print source to do so?

It may be the Vogue Cook Book, which you can read here in fully digitized form. It was published by The News, an evening Toronto newspaper. See pp. 91 and 105 for two butter tart recipes.

Although a copyright or publication year is not stated in the book, the publication month and year are December 1908 according to the analysis of bibliographer Elizabeth Driver in her 2008 Culinary Landmarks: a Bibliography of Canadian Cookbooks, 1825-1949, see here.  

The recipe contributed by “Mrs. G.M.B.” in Toronto is often cited as influential as it sets out, like the 1900 Barrie recipe, the “core” recipe used to this day. The other, from “Clarice” in Plattsville, ON seems eccentric at least in retrospect. Her filling has no egg and a lump of butter is placed over a dry mixture of flour and sugar before baking (a clue to another possible derivation  of “butter” in butter tart?).

Still, both recipes use similar albeit not identical ingredients, and both are baked dishes.

A “sugar tarts” recipe from the same Clarice appears on the same page. In effect it is a butterscotch tart, different from the typical butter tart in that the filling, otherwise similar to the other’s, is boiled on the stove and poured into baked shells to cool; there is no baking in the shells. I will revisit this form of tart below in connection with similar American and Canadian versions, some of which are termed butter tarts.

Further, in the undated, second edition of The Beaver Valley Collection of Latest and Best Recipes that appeared sometime between 1907 (first edition) and 1912 (third edition), a Mrs. S. Hooey contributed a recipe for butter tarts. See again E. Driver’s discussion, here.

It is unclear which book holds precedence since the second edition of The Beaver Valley book could have been published before December 1908, although given that the third edition appeared in 1912, it seems more probable the second edition of Beaver Valley appeared after the Vogue Cook Book.

In any case, both are key early texts appearing about the same time. Taken too with the earlier Barrie recipe, E. Driver’s statement that Ontario butter tarts emerged at the turn of the century seems reasonable.

Of course usage was likely older on an oral or unpublished basis, as frequently occurs before someone thinks to write down a recipe.

Next, there is the Canadian Farm Cook Book published in 1911, which set out six recipes seriatum. Each uses sugar, egg, and butter for the filling, and all but one adds currants, a common ingredient in modern butter tarts.

All are from different centres in Ontario. You can read them in the fully-digitized Canadian Farm Cook Book, here.

The Five Roses Cookbook, of which the first two editions appeared in 1913 and 1915, published by an industrial miller on Lake of the Woods, also contains a butter tart recipe. See, in the digitized 1915 edition, pg. 79. This book helped popularize the dish nationally due to the book’s cross-country distribution. This recent article by Julie Van Rosendaal in Toronto’s The Globe and Mail offers useful background in this regard.

Canadian food authority Elizabeth Baird sets out a recipe for butter tarts on the website of the Liquor Control Board of Ontario, here, adapted from the 1913 edition. This version blends some maple syrup in and uses chips of walnut.

After WW I the dish became a mainstay of Ontario baking and, if not a quite a national Canadian specialty, something rather more than just an Ontario one.

Proximate Origins of the Canadian Butter Tart

As some food writers concur, the Scots Ecclefechan butter tart, aka the Ecclefechan tart, and their boon companion the Border tart, are surely the immediate ancestors to Canada’s butter tart.

Some observers however take a different, or at least more nuanced, view of origin, suggesting for example that Quebec’s sugar pie has had some influence on Ontario’s butter tart.

Caitlin Coleman of Toronto studied aspects of butter tart history in 2009 while in graduate studies at University of Toronto. In a personal communication to us recently she made the interesting point that vinegar pie, while likely not a direct predecessor of butter tarts, may have influenced butter tarts given vinegar is a frequent ingredient and may be a leftover element from that forgotten dessert. (We thank members of the Culinary Historians of Canada (CHC) and Ms. Coleman for providing information on a presentation she made on butter tarts in 2009 to a CHC conference that honoured the work of Canadian cookbook bibliographer Elizabeth Driver).

For the two U.K. types butter seems a constant in the doughs. The fillings usually share a base of eggs, sugar or other sweetening, and butter, with various dried fruits or nuts added for a relish. An acid element seems optional (vinegar, lemon juice), ditto for a spice such as cinnamon.

The Scots cookery authority Catherine Brown gives a recipe for Ecclefechan’s tart in her 2011 book Classic Scots Cookery, here.  She also describes the Border tart and states the Ecclefechan butter tart is a variation.

These British forms are known it seems primarily in Scotland but also parts of England. A 1937 recipe in the Australian newspaper Truth for “Old English Butter Tarts” is similar to Ecclefechan’s but more simplified. This modern English butter tarts recipe, from the All Recipes site, is similar to the Australian, and both resemble the Ontario one closely. Further below we cite similar tarts in the U.S., described as English or Welsh, going back to the mid-1900s and possibly earlier.

The line (sorry!) between Border tart and Ecclefechan butter tart seems vague. The London Eats site attempts to draw it, while stating with self-deprecation that the attempt is questionable. The Border tart seems often iced, while the other is not usually although a touch of meringue may be added, or whipped cream as Ms. Brown advises. And the Ecclefechan can, as London Eats confirms, be in tartlet shape while the Border tart seems rarely to be so.

The shortcrust of the Border tart – it seems typically a shortcrust – often incorporates almonds. The Ecclefechan generally does not, in line with practice in Ontario.

In general, both Border and Ecclefechan tarts when compared to the 1857 description of butter tart mentioned below (in turn it references a 1709 recipe) reflect the same kind of dish: a pastry meant to hold an egg-enriched sugar and butter blend further enhanced with nuts or preserved fruit. This goes some way in our view to showing the butter tart – that terminology – came first.

By virtue of using typically both nuts and fruit, and mixed fruit at that, the Ecclefechan tart seems “busier” than the typical butter tart of Canada. Many Ecclefechan recipes also describe a flattish, flan-shape. The commonly used shortcrust for this has a different texture than some Canadian butter tarts that employ a shortbread crust (cookie-style).

But Ecclefechan tarts are also made in small, “tartlet” quantities, where the result looks very close to Ontario’s. See e.g. here, from the All Recipes site again, or the Walker’s commercial line of boxed Ecclefechan tarts. And pastry shells would have varied in composition surely (pie crust, shortbread, etc.) depending on the family, local practice, and quality; at least in Canada that has occurred and we suspect no less in Scotland.

The 1937 Australian example calls for using a “patty tin“, which produces small tarts via the rounded or fluted indentations. Occasionally too in Canada whole pies, or square pies, are made that otherwise use standard butter tart ingredients. This Alberta recipe for a pan of square butter tarts, from the site “A Pretty Life in the Suburbs”, uses a shortbread crust instead of the typical pie crust. Many Toronto bakers sell a form of square butter tart, as well.

Another recipe for the Ecclefechan tart, sourced by U.K. travel author Bruce Stannard from a noted hotel, is similar to Ms. Brown’s except using the tartlet shape.

Hence, shape or size are not of themselves a reliable demarcation between the U.K. and Canadian butter tarts, and neither is crust type in our view.

The attractive “Cook’s Info” culinary site, in useful historical notes, argues that our butter tart and American pecan pie both derive from the U.K. butter tart. It further makes the point that some examples of the Scots and Canadian traditions are indistinguishable, which to my mind is decisive.

There is yet more. A strong Scottish and English emigration to Ontario followed the initial influx of American Loyalists, including to Barrie. And the surnames MacLeod and Hooey seem Scots or at least Gaelic.

The British influence on the Ontario butter tart seems inevitable even as the latter represents a particularly toothsome form.

A New Idea Regarding the Ultimate Origins of the U.K. Butter and Border Tarts

In preliminary notes in 2016 I discussed the entry for “butter-tart” in the Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial English by Thomas Wright, first edition issued in 1857. Wright cited The Queen’s Royal Cookery’s recipe for butter-tart, which dates from 1709 per this British Library notation.

The author was T. Hall, described on the frontispiece as a “free London cook”. In the second edition of Hall’s book issued in 1713, see the digitized copy in the Library of Congress collection, here, the recipe as Wright described it appears at pg. 140, save that it is termed simply Butter Tart (no hyphen):

The “mackrooms” mentioned are macaroons in our view (not macarons), which were made with almonds, egg, and sugar, and later sometimes coconut. A modern Border tart from the artisan bakery Alex Dalgetty in the Scots Border country claims its recipe is the original form. See the photograph included, the tart features a double-crusted, “sponge” filling of sugar, almond and coconut.

It is remarkably similar to T. Hall’s recipe above, and an example of living history.

We have not been able to trace a butter tart before Hall although he was known to have liberally borrowed some recipes from other books, as common at the time.

The recipe advised to “bard” with “paste” (pastry) a filling composed in the main of beaten egg, mackrooms, and butter, so that the tart is not open-face in other words.

Despite no prior citations to our knowledge, the recipe appears to us older than c.1700, perhaps Middle Ages or earlier, and is in any case recognizable as an ancestor of the modern butter tart, albeit more elaborate, given too of course it bears the name. The sugar component of the macaroons would have sweetened the filling – perhaps honey was used in some cases – and the nutty taste of the almonds continued in the frequent use of nuts in the later U.K. and Ontario butter tarts.

The fact that Wright referenced the butter tart in 1857 is not simply a surplus later citation, as it shows perhaps the term was in use in his day as a provincialism – one of the provinces of his book, so to speak.

If in use in Wright’s day, it reinforces a direct U.K. lineage for Ontario’s butter tart.

I hypothesize that at least from Queen Anne’s time, but probably earlier, cooks called a tart “barded” where a top layer of pastry was used, and by corruption of pronunciation over time, barded became butter and Border in tarts so named, even though the double-layer of pastry was finally dispensed with. The suggestion is novel to my knowledge, but warrants at a minimum further consideration.

A theory current in food history circles for some years is that U.K. butter tarts and the similar Border tarts originated in the Borders country that straddles the boundary of Scotland and England, and that butter is a corruption of Border, as butter is no more important in these tarts than in much other confectionary. This of course could take in Hall’s butter tart.

This theory is attractive, but all avenues need further exploration to aim at more conclusiveness on the questions.

For example, unlike for the butter tart, it appears there is no documentation for the Border tart before 1900, which suggests to me the butter tart came first and inspired the other, presumably by corruption of the distinguishing term. That the dish survived better, it appears, in the Borders country may be the happy coincidence of the geographical name suggesting a connection.

United States References to Butter Tarts – General

It turns out there is a great number of references in the U.S. press to butter tarts, some of which precede the first Canadian citations.

I consider below a representative number, and whether these tarts are the same as the Canadian one. In brief, many clearly are not, some clearly are but were borrowed from Canada due to cross-border contact, and others are more ambiguous. It is likely the same kind of tart as in Canada existed episodically in the U.S., but directly from a U.K. influence.

References to Butter Torte and Butter Tart in that connection

What is a butter torte, and why is it relevant to this discussion? A butter torte, sometimes called buttercream torte, is a German or Central European cake, generally multiple layers interleaved with buttercream or another butter-and-sugar-based filling. The Canadian website Dairy Goodness offers a good recipe for a mocha version.

A butter torte was also sometimes a puff pastry-based confection in which a fruit filling provided a signature flavour.

For good historical background on the German and Austrian tortes, see Michael Krondl at pp. 280-283 of his 2011 Sweet Inventions: a History of Dessert.

The United States Cookbook by William Vollmer was published in numerous editions in Philadelphia including in 1865. It was reissued in 1893, and you can read a number of butter torte/butter tart recipes in that version, i.e., appearing alternately in German and English.

Vollmer wrote the book in German and a translator (see title page) rendered each page successively in English. That is, the English version of butter torte is rendered as butter tart.

See Vollmer’s recipes for these at pp. 149-150, here. The fruits specified included apple, raspberry, and currants. In other words: a simple fruit-filled tart known to a number of European cuisines and popularized internationally early.

In Jessup Whitehead’s seventh edition (1894) of his The American Pastry Cookno reference can be found to the butter torte or butter tart. Whiteheads’ book was directed in part (see title page) to commercial bakeries.

This suggests Vollmer’s version, as his original German text implies, was ethnic in character, not a mainstream type of food.

While clearly different from the British and Canadian butter tarts we mention Vollmer’s “faux” 19th-century version, since subsequent U.S. news ads for “butter tarts” may in some cases be this German specialty, the cake or fruit-in-puff paste tart, especially where German immigrants were the bakers.

Reference to Butter Tart in a French Norman Context

In 1889 a short fictional story appeared in New York’s The Epoch, a topical magazine and journal. It was called “The Uncle From America”, adapted from the French of Emil Souvestre by Isabel Smithson. It states that a “butter-tart” was served to a long-absent uncle visiting relations in Normandy, somewhere near Dieppe. Cider accompanied a sumptuous repast in which the tart figured.

It is clear from the context that this is some type of French pastry tart, probably “au beurre“, even as we cannot trace a contemporary Norman or other French one called “tarte au beurre“. The term clearly has nothing to do with the British and Canadian butter tarts, but I mention it for completeness, especially as the story, a homily, was reprinted many times in the U.S. press. (The uncle is welcomed, as a presumably rich benefactor-to-be, with the best hospitality the hosts can muster, when it turns out he is without resources, however it all ends well).

The Butterscotch Tart

On July 21, 1914 in the Brooklyn, NY Daily Star, a recipe appeared for “butter tarts”:

One egg, one cup of granulated sugar, butter size of an egg, one-fourth cup of milk, one cup currants. Put all ingredients together and boil until like soft custard: flavor and cool. When cool, put in tart shells and serve.

This recipe appeared the same year in different parts of the northeast, including in Buffalo, NY. In a recipe in the Brooklyn Daily Star in April 1914 for the same butter tart, it was attributed to the Los Angeles Express. This dish, while using similar ingredients to the ordinary butter tart, clearly is a different confection – the different cooking treatment ensures that – yet the fact of sharing the same name with the more familiar butter tart suggests a relationship.

Perhaps the Canadian and U.K. butter tarts were all prepared originally as a butterscotch tart still is, before ovens became common household equipment.

In Flesherton, ON’s The Flesherton Advance on January 6, 1937 two recipes for butter tarts appeared, the classic baked one, and a second similar to the boiled version above but sans the egg. The second was contributed by a resident of Delia, Alberta, the first was local.

Modern recipes for butterscotch tart are easy to find on both sides of the Atlantic, here is one from Nigella Lawson’s website.

Perhaps at some point the butter tart term for simplicity and clarity became associated with the baked butter tart, while the other is called now exclusively butterscotch tart. A search of these respective terms seems to confirm this, but it remains a matter of impression.

I don’t think the butterscotch tarts of America were influenced by the butter tart of Canada, they are too dispersed geographically for that and are documented at about the same time the Canadian butter tart emerged. Why the baked version did not become as popular in the U.S. as Canada is hard to say. I suppose, to mix metaphors, the Americans had other fish to fry.

References to Butter Tarts in Niagara Frontier that Salute Canadian Influence

Throughout the mid- and later-20th century, many recipes for a Canadian-style butter tart appear in Buffalo, NY newspapers or elsewhere in what Empire State residents call, or used to, the Niagara Frontier. Many of these acknowledge Canadian influence, as this one of September 29, 1959 in the Buffalo Courier-Express (it has an interesting feature of a teaspoon of instant coffee).

Others are not attributed this way, but can be presumed to have been inspired by cross-border contact. I say this due not just to the proximity of that part of New York to Ontario, but the fact that baked butter tart recipes appear not to have proliferated in the state until after they became well-established in Ontario.

At the same time, other references to butter tarts in New York’s press, and outside New York, cannot be so easily explained.

U.S. References to Butter Tarts That are Arguably Ambiguous

Consider a 1962 article from the (American) Niagara Falls Gazette, in which the following appears:

Mrs. Stewart makes elaborate preparations for holiday festivities and has an imposing array of Welsh desserts. Clockwise are her Teisen Lychwan or Welsh cakes; Bara Brith, (fruit bread); English Trifle; and a platter of butter tarts, lemon tarts and small fruit cakes in paper cups. Her plum pudding, topped with holly, is in the center.

The very clear photo shows Mrs. Stewart in traditional Welsh costume and her array of treats mentioned. The butter tarts look just like ours. Yet there is no reference to Canada, they are described, evidently via Mrs. Stewart, as Welsh as for the other foods. Could it be she discovered the butter tarts across the bridge, and simply assumed (correctly) they had a distant Britannic inspiration, and just called them Welsh from convenience?

It’s possible. I cannot find an example in current culinary literature of a Welsh butter tart or border tart. Interestingly, a 2011 detective book called A Killer’s Christmas in Wales written by Elizabeth Duncan, part of her Penny Brannigan series, includes a reference to “brandy butter tarts“, but Elizabeth Duncan is Canadian! Perhaps though she did notice such tarts in a Welsh bakery at one point.

In The Hamburg Sun in May 1963, a bake sale for the Unitarian Church offered “‘Molly Jones’ English butter tarts”:

Home baked goods will feature fruit breads, home baked beans and brown bread, coffee cakes, home made bread, “Molly Jones” English butter tarts and cookies.

Hamburg is just west of Buffalo, not far again from Canada. A similar example, with recipe, in 1929 in more distant Schenectady, NY is called simply English Tart, and virtually identical to the basic butter tart recipe of Ontario.

There is no reference to Canada, or details of the Molly Jones, for Hamburg’s butter tart. Butter tarts can indeed be English as we know, so could these dishes, as perhaps Mrs. Stewart’s, have entered the local baking scene directly via a U.K. influence? We think this rather likely.

In 1958, an American who married a man of Scottish background made “Scotch butter tarts”, see this interesting account in the Buffalo Courier-Express.

She states she got the small metal tins from “commercial” examples of butter tarts sold in Canada – all Ontarians reading know those tins! – but otherwise the cultural reference here is Scotland, no differently than for the other Scots dishes she made for her family.

Her recipe (partly obscured by the shield of the uploader) appears to be the Ecclefechan/Ontario type. The only difference I see is cake crumbs are used to bulk out the filling. A vestige of the crumbly filling in T. Hall’s 1709/1713 recipe…?

In January 1950 in the Wilton Bulletin in Wilton, CT, rather remote from the Niagara Frontier, a Beata Fortune advertises “butter tarts”, Britannic-sounding shortbread, and brandy snaps: no apparent German connection.

See also this Mississippi survival of butter tarts, presumably implanted long ago by Scots-Irish or Scots settlers.

All this to say, the butter tart of the U.K. almost certainly has had a long implantation in the U.S. for which Canada cannot be credited. Unlike Canada though, the dish never flourished there, never became marked for culinary distinction as one might say for apple pie, or the milkshake.

U.S. Butter Tarts Advertisements Circa-1900 and More Recently, in Greenfield, MA

One of the most interesting cases concerns Charles Voetsch, a German immigrant baker from Thuringen. He came to Greenfield, MA, in the north of the state, an area certainly well-insulated from Canada. This 1909 sketch of his career in the Greenfield Recorder explains he came in 1896, set up a bakery, and sold it in 1909 after 13 successful years in business.

He had numerous ads in the Greenfield Recorder that included butter tarts. They appeared between 1900 and 1908 with (in different combinations) eclairs, Charlotte Russe, cream puffs, whipped cream cakes, and frozen pudding as companion offerings. These are vaguely French or Anglo-American-type preparations, not really typical of German or Viennese baking.

The earliest ad I found, via the Fulton Historical Newspapers archive as for most of the news references herein, is from December 5, 1900:

I suspect similar Voetsch ads appeared before 1900 but the archives mentioned appear to start in 1900 for this newspaper.

Was this a Scots-style butter tart, implanted in Greenfield in a fashion similar to its (presumed) implantation in Ontario? Or was it perhaps the German fruit-laced puff pastry William Vollmer wrote about both in German and English and a successful (German-American) baker such as Voetsch can be presumed to have known about?

We cannot say, except that the item was popular enough to have appeared in numerous ads by his bakery in the same paper mentioned. Here is one more, from December 14, 1904.

Holtermann’s is a surviving family bakery in Staten Island, NY, founded by a German ancestor in the late-1800s who must have been much like Voetsch. The Holtermann website describes numerous specialties that were also advertised by Voetsch in the early 1900s, and more modern ones, but not butter tarts. Perhaps Holtermann carried them in 1900.

Let’s return to modern Greenfield, MA, though. Foster’s, a family-owned supermarket in the city founded in 1941, may still sell butter tarts as the current website includes an image of a butter tart, the pecan-type familiar to Ontarians, with accompanying recipe (the Scots-Canadian type).

A legend under the image states the latter originated with a canola oil manufacturer, so the image and perhaps the recipe may not represent any butter tarts currently sold by Foster’s, or may not represent the type it sold earlier in the 1900s (see below). Foster’s current bakery product list, here, does not reference butter tarts, so we are unclear if any are still sold. It appears the bakery list was recently changed as earlier this month when we first examined it, butter tarts were listed.

In a 1988 Foster’s supermarket ad, butter tarts were clearly available. The ad was placed in the same newspaper in which Voetsch advertised his butter tarts three generations earlier:

This ad supplies a possible clue that what Voetsch sold c.1900 was the fruited, German puff-pastry version. One way to interpret the ad is two types of butter tart are sold, a raspberry one and pecan one. I suppose one can argue that it meant, raspberry tart, pecan tart, and butter tart, three types all different, in which case it is still an open question what “butter tart” meant.

A raspberry, Ontario-style butter tart sounds atypical to say the least. Such a Greenfield butter tart (if it is that) has a hint of William Vollmer, and perhaps too shows what Voetsch sold under that name. A puff pastry flavoured with pecan is also still current, a quick search discloses many recipes.

Other Early-1900s U.S. Bakery Ads for Butter Tarts Outside Upstate New York

The Voetsch butter tart was probably similar to some butter tarts advertised in the same era elsewhere in the northeast (at least). On September 24, 1901 in Wilmington, Del., a deluxe grocery store, Hanscom’s, sold butter tarts together with vanilla jumble and marshmallow and jam sandwiches, for one price by the pound.

The jumble was a type of cookie, and the “sandwiches” perhaps were like the dome-shaped, chocolate-coated jam and marshmallow cookies still sold today. All these items seemingly formed an assortment, see the wording of the ad.

The Philadelphia Inquirer on August 2, 1904 advertised butter tarts as part of an assortment that included “diamond figs, [n?]ice assorted fruits, pineapple turnovers, and cocoanut combination bars”:

The grocery store Siegel Cooper in New York, in the World on May 28, 1906, advertised butter tarts in an assortment that also featured a fruit sandwich, vanilla jelly, and date fingers. See here another example from the same retailer earlier in the same month.

A newspaper ad by the Star Bakery in Michigan on April 7, 1917 offered butter tarts along with cream puffs and angel food cake – seemingly no German context.

(In Toronto today, some grocery stores sell an in-house biscuit tray that may be similar to these assortments. Here is an example from Longo’s, and it includes clearly butter tarts, the usual Ontario type of course. These are smaller than usual-size, for “two-bites”).

And so, which tart in these cases? The Scots butter tart? The German fruited one? The butterscotch tart? Maybe sometimes it was one or another although we incline it may well have been the Scots type, given grocery assortments of biscuits are still sold, at least in Toronto, that contain “our” butter tart.

An Ontario influence would seem too early for the cases mentioned between 1901 and 1906 but the Michigan case may be different, as the town in question, Crystal Falls, is just below Lake Superior. Perhaps by 1917 the Five Roses Cookbook had penetrated there given ship navigation around the Great Lakes.


The butter tart is deservedly Ontario’s pet snack, a word that seems too derisory to describe it at its best. Its distinction comes from the few ingredients used vs. a more complex (in general) construction overseas; the purity and full flavour are best expressed in the simple way we make it. Anyway, we perfected it.

At the same time, the butter tart has had an American career. In some cases it was our’s transplanted, in others it was Scotland’s or Albion’s brought direct to the U.S. but never becoming a thing there as it did here. Yet in other cases, it was a German-type butter torte or indeed Britannic but the line of confections known as the butterscotch tart, which at bottom is a different pastry.

Canadian entrepreneurs have attempted periodically to introduce butter tarts to Americans. The actress Suzanne Sommers and her Canadian-born husband tried a few decades ago but it didn’t work.** An entrepreneur, Asher Weiss, is currently trying in New York as reported in the city’s Daily News, and we wish him well.*** The headline stated butter tarts have “arrive[d] in New York”. But not for the first time.

Note re images: the images and quotations above are all drawn from sources identified and linked in the text. All intellectual property therein belongs solely to the lawful owners, as applicable. Images used for educational and historical purposes, and for fair comment. All feedback welcomed.

[See also our post following on the Ginger Farm Butter Tart].


*All consideration of apple butter tarts, made that is with the product apple butter, and lemon or orange butter tarts, has been excluded as the dominance of the fresh fruit flavour seems to take these out of the basic Scots-Anglo-Canadian butter tart family. The peanut butter, or peanut butter-and-chocolate, tart likewise seems of a different order to us. Incidentally, chocolate butter tarts simpliciter are quite popular in Ontario now but we think these quite wrongheaded – I’ve never had one that seems “right”. Our preference in classic butter tarts is the plain Jane type, or with currants. More is superfluous and can detract from the purity and intensity of taste.

**The investment was referred to in this L.A. Times obituary of their business partner, Mr. A. J. Maxwell.

***See his company’s lively website, Btarts, here.










The English Public House in 1886

A portrait of the English pub appeared in 1886 in the U.S. press including The Oswego Blade of New York. The story originated in the Chicago Herald, and evidently was syndicated.

The pub was exotic enough to attract American readers’ interest. Their saloon, originating in a common source, had evolved into something different.

From the article:

There is a great deal more sociability in the English public house than in the Ameri­can sample room. In the lanes and side streets of the fashionable part of London may be found the same character of old-fashioned public as in the city. Every one of these has its regular customers, and its ” snuggery” in the evening is generally full of its patrons who are, for the most part, the coachman, grooms, and “gentlemen’s gentlemen,” otherwise valets of the “classes” who reside in the neighboring Belgravia. Here the Jeameses canvass the characters of their various lords, and ladies, and more true scandal is talked in these public house snuggeries than in any of their ladies’ boudoirs.

The village public is quite an institution by itself, and is as distinct in character from its London brother as chalk is from cheese. Here the landlord still retains some of the qualities and bearings of “mine host” of former days. The public is the headquarters of the political lights of the village, and doctor, lawyer and farmer meet together in the snuggery to discuss the merits of a popular race horse or a popular statesman just as frequently now as they did in days gone by. The railroad and telegraph have had wonderfully little effect in some of the rural parts of England, and Hodge, in the village public, is just as densely ignorant of anything that goes on beyond his own immediate kin as ever he was. To him “t’sqoir” and the “big house” are the epitomes of all that is great and noble, and the opinions of the lord of the manor give a coloring to everything discussed in the “snuggery.”

“Sample room” for a bar or saloon may have a Chicago origin, as suggested by the Encyclopedia of Chicago History.

The Herald usefully sketches the Victorian pub, distinguishing village and urban versions. There is a tinge of condescension, not untypical for American coverage of Britain then, but the piece retains its historical value.

The writer explains that in the country, the pub shows vestiges of yore, e.g. by deference paid to village notables. The landlord himself might earn that status, see my earlier piece.

As local gentry often owned held the village  freehold or employed part of the populace, enlightened self-interest probably paid a role in this respect, a level of sociology beyond the journalist’s ken.

The piece noted that in country pubs the professional classes might dominate the “snug”, a sequestered nook, while in London’s tony sections retinues of aristocracy had that privilege.

The snug, aka snug-room or snuggery, was a small chamber, sometimes shielded from view by frosted glass. Women customers might also frequent it, or officials on public business, e.g. conducting voting or judging exhibits at a fair.

Many older pubs today retain the physical arrangements of 1886 although spatially the use has evolved. Still, the essential function of the pub, as social meeting place or resort for personal downtime, has not changed.

Below is a country pub and inn of today in Dinton, Wiltshire, the Penruddocke Arms (source: Wikipedia).





An Even-Tempered Look at the English Pub, 1870s

New York’s The Sun in 1877 covered the English pub, one of many articles in the American press between the post-Civil War period and the 1950s dealing with the topic.

The pub exercised a certain fascination on the American public, and this continued for a long time. It manifested itself in different ways, including the building of American restaurants and bars that sought to emulate the tap-house/pub/tavern/inn (largely undifferentiated in American eyes) or the Americans’ conception of it.

Some lines from The Sun’s article:

LONDON, Nov. 1.—In Great Britain, everybody, approximately speaking, drinks wine, ale, or beer—women and children not excepted. A very large majority of the English people look upon ale and beer as being quite as necessary a part of of their living as tea and coffee—and as being quite as legitimate, too. …. In England, a man who does not drink is something of an oddity. Abstinence is looked upon as a whim; few can detect in it a real principle. … Nearly all families keep a jug of beer or ale in the house, and all partake of it daily. When the jug is empty, the wife or daughter thinks nothing of running into the public house for a new supply.

…. The English public house is comparatively respectable. The occupation itself is considered reputable, and the most attractive house-fronts in almost any business street, are those of the public houses. Within, they contrast very favorably with other places of business … When people all drink beer, the places where beer is sold cannot well be other than reasonably decent. I would not be understood as saying that the average English public house is a thoroughly reputable place, but it is less objectionable than our American saloon.

In most public houses girls wait upon the bar, and, so far as I can see, they are generally quite as intelligent and well behaved as those who wait upon customers in other branches of business. At any busy part of the day you would not often look into a public house without seeing a fair sprinkling of women present.

…. drunkenness is not of the most violent kind, but it is very general.

The assessment was rendered about the same time as the dyspeptic article by a fellow-American I discussed here. The Sun article is certainly more even-tempered and reasonable in tone, and seems to want to understand the true facts without a distorting agenda.

The normality of the pub as a business enterprise is stressed. The staff acts in a manner similar to that in other shops, the owners are for the most part reputable, and (evidently) the pubs cater to a real, widespread demand in the population. In other words, the daily imbibing of alcohol is a cultural trait, not something created by a cynical syndicate of brewers or out-of-control licensing system.

Yes there is drunkenness, but the writer doesn’t define most of its manifestations and it is hard to know if on a net basis society is worse or better off; the writer is non-committal in any event.

The factor of women being regularly present in London pubs is interesting. There is no reference to “hidden” compartments such as the snug, or any kind of particular case in this regard such as arriving to fetch beer for home, but a general statement that if you looked in the bar day in day out women would be seen.

Other evidence suggests similar, including this interesting paper that compares pubs in Liverpool and Manchester berween 1840 and 1914 by Alistair Mutch (see especially p. 27).

Practice may have varied too depending on the type of pub, the city, the licensing regime.

Fragmentary as these press reports are, taken together they are a kind of Mass Observation social study before its time. One advantage of journalistic coverage is, unless coming from a strong ideological base such as a temperance newspaper, the depiction of social reality tends to be relatively objective, even as no one observer is perfectly objective or has all the facts.

An old expression says, the truth lies somewhere in the middle, and perhaps that’s true of the public house issue for Victorian Britain. It was never as wicked as the temperance advocates argued, never as innocent and benign as its ardent defenders wished.

Note re sources: The quotation above is drawn from the press report linked in the press, archived in the Fulton History newspapers. All intellectual property therein belongs solely to the lawful owner, as applicable. Quotation used for educational and historical purposes, and for fair comment. All feedback welcomed.