The wine-and-cheese party is a staple of middle-class and gentrified living. Wine and cheese for the vernissage at an art store. A church holds one to raise money for repairs. A new book is out on climate change. A winery is touting a new release. Call in the wine and cheese.
While hardly fashionable in the way vegan food is, or sustainably sourced fish, wine and cheese as an event is a permanent part of the culinary scene. It’s no trouble to find advice how to hold one. Here is an good suggestion, from the website Big Girl Small Kitchen.
Unlike one-time vinous stalwarts such as Blue Nun or crackling rosé, or cheese sensations of the 1950s and 60s (Blue Roquefort, Camembert), the “wine and cheese” is evergreen.
How did it start? Old school practice was to drink wine, certainly, but with meals. Champagne proverbially goes with anything and any time, but traditionally red and still wines were not consumed outside a meal context.
Is pairing cheese with wine an old stand-by of the Paris or Lyon wine bar, transplanted here intact? No, it’s not. The French never drank plain wine as an aperitif. They didn’t hold cocktail parties, either. Cheese ends a meal, or it used to, in France and wine is consumed with food there. True, in the bistro one can order a plate of charcuterie or cheese to nibble with wine, but the food is an afterthought; there is no sedulous attention given to “what with what”.
The inimitable English drinks writer Frederick Martin, in An Encyclopaedia of Drinks and Drinking stated c.1970:
The habit of drinking wine as a beverage, largely unaccompanied by food, has much grown up in Britain and has been fostered by the trade through promotion of “wine and cheese” parties, which I personally find the dullest social events imaginable. Wine and cheese by all means, at the conclusion of a good dinner, but not as an end in themselves.
So what changed? Martin lays it at the feet of wine promotional bodies, they came up with it to woo a larger market. He may be right but I think in any case the Americans started it. They were the first to consider wine an aperitif, or “drink”, that is. Now the custom obtains everywhere.
Before you can think of wine with a tidbit you have to accept it as a per se drink, like whiskey, or beer, or Coke. As Martin says, wine on its own is not part of traditional social habits.
Maybe Germany had something to do with it. Moselle and other classic German whites are on the sweet side and drink well on their own, after all. Taverns in the Rhine offer such wines between meals, certainly. And Germans long had influence in New York and elsewhere in the U.S. as I’ve discussed in other contexts, including for wine habits.
Maybe the wine and cheese started in California wine country. Wine probably always had a larger social role there than in the more settled East, less subject to the European carapace. The “jug” concept is consistent with that. You take it jug to a poetry reading, a folk concert, a picnic. Snacks will be found to go with it, daddio.
I’m starting to think, indeed, the idea migrated to New York from California, perhaps before Prohibition. But at bottom the wine and cheese is American, and thence to London, Montreal, Barcelona, and Hong Kong, no doubt.
In formal terms we can trace the idea to the Thirties. The Wine and Food Society of New York, of which I’ve written prodigally including on my recreation of a landmark 1944 beer event at the Waldorf Astoria, hosted a wine and cheese party in 1936. It was enough of a novelty to get press attention.
The soiree was an odd combination of the epicurean and down-home. Fine vintages, some inappropriately sweet, were paired with cheeses such as Limburger. Hmm.
A quasi-precedent is perhaps this tasting of cheeses and wine in 1890 as related in a magazine that reprinted the original New York Tribune report. It’s interesting that Limburger appears here as well. In this case it is divided into two classes: imported (“rank”) and domestic (much superior). This was surely pre-pasteurization days for cheese, and shipping raw milk Limburger to America required an iron palate at the other end.
The New Yorkers of 1890-1939 seemed to have a fondness for German cheese, probably due to the German element that formerly dominated in the Yorkville quarter. The 1890 event featured numerous toothsome cheeses, most familiar to us today. Clearly wine was drunk with them, but a formal meal was not reported. Hence an early “wine and cheese”.
What may have been an occasional Eastern foodie practice, tasting cheese with wine (or vice versa), or a California wine country practice imported from the West, finally was formalized in 1936 at the New York Wine and Food Society’s event.
Read the droll report of the New York Times, “Wine Tasters Test Talents on Cheese”, here:
Was that the first event one can properly call a “wine-and-cheese”? Perhaps, or one of the first. The Limburger apart, the essentials of the modern wine-and-cheese are there, and perhaps for the 1890 event.
I think wine with cheese is okay, beer with cheese too. But are these really “natural” combinations? You could as well combine such drinks with cold cuts, a salad of moderate substance, biscuits, or breads. Sweet wines go with even a broader range.
Stilton and port do have a long association in English culinary history, but that alone can’t have started wine and cheese as a special event. The fact that cheese has been eaten with wine or beer as a course in a fixed meal, or for a casual snack, and probably for a long time, is not the self-conscious modern wine and cheese tasting.
Someone hit on the notion early in the U.S. and the Wine and Food Society of New York helped democratize it, not intentionally though. The Society then was an elite group. At its next event in 1936 a dinner commemorated the great Escoffier’s work and was chaired by the brother of President Taft…
But as often happens influential small groups do something and it spreads from there. It doesn’t matter what it is, guitar feedback, bacon-infused cocktail, cloudy beer, free verse, Buffalo wings, poutine, somewhere somehow something starts and it grows.
Many food and drink trends have short lives, yet the wine-and-cheese is a hardy survivor.
Note re images: The first image above was sourced from the clip-art website, here, and is believed in the public domain. The second image was sourced from the New York Times story linked in the text. All intellectual property therein belongs solely to their lawful owners, as applicable. Images used for educational and historical purposes. All feedback welcomed.