A Super Stout
There was a plan in distant 1950 to send Barclay Perkin’s Russian Imperial Stout over to America, so much, said a contemporary news story, did Yank soldiers admire it during the war (?).
Even in the early days of motivational research, the exporter was clever enough to relabel it, this is 1950, as Imperial Extra Stout. Details can be gleaned from a 1950 issue of the Buffalo Evening News. It reads in part:
RUSSIAN STOUT NAMED IMPERIAL FOR U. S. MARKET
Special to The Buffalo Evening News and Chicago Daily News
LONDON, April 26. — One of the popular beers in England is “Russian stout,” so-called ever since it was first brewed in 1781 for export to Russia.
In old days Russia’s aristocracy demanded a super stout and a British brewery rose to the occasion, naming the brew after its destination. From 1781 until World War I, thousands of barrels of Russian stout were shipped over every year.
But times have changed. Russia is now behind an Iron Curtain, which even Russian stout is not able to penetrate. There’s a new potential market in America, however, which the brewers hope to open up….
Barclay’s Russian Stout had been imported to far-away Victoria, Canada certainly before WW I. See e.g., in this issue of the Daily Colonist from 1909, with mention of other stouts of Barclay Perkins. (Both links via the Fulton Historical Newspaper resource).
After commencement of WW I, in seems Courage Imperial Russian Stout, as the brewery’s premier stout was finally named, did not reappear in North America until the 1970s, unless in fact some arrived in 1950, as the Buffalo news story may suggest.
American beer writer Michael Weiner gives the beer high praise in his 1977 The Taster’s Guide to Beer, stating: “smooth, rich, velvety. Sweet, yet carries the bitter tang of hops”.
(Weiner’s book was written without knowledge surely of Michael Jackson’s landmark The World Guide to Beer published in the same year. As beer historians well know, Jackson’s book lyricised Imperial stout and made it a permanent part of the craft brewing pantheon to come. According to this notation by Barnes and Noble, Weiner’s book was published on January 1, 1977. Hence, the 1977 is nominal and the book was readied for print earlier, whilst Jackson’s book came out mid-1977.
In any case, Weiner’s book contains no internal evidence of influence from Englishman Jackson).
Weiner also stated that Imperial stout was “Perhaps the most unusual commercially produced beer … [and] …is also among the strongest in the world”. He reprinted a lengthy, admiring account by the English wine writer Cyril Ray from Queen magazine (1960s-era). Ray wrote about the beer in a way that likened its best “vintages” to fine Burgundy, using literary flourishes along the way.
The sale of (English) Lacon’s audit ale in New York in 1937, as I showed recently, showed no less that even in the early days of consumer beer awareness a rich, expressive beer could be had from the top end of British brewing.
Certainly by the 1970s, for those who knew where to look, fine imported beer was available, in many categories familiar today. These included strong ale, Imperial stout, pale ale, Belgian Trappist, Belgian saison, and many German types. Even tart Berliner Weisse, a forerunner of today’s sour styles, could be found, at least in some major cities such as New York.
Had the Korean War not intervened, English Russian stout might have been the toast of 1950s connoisseur circles. After all, it wasn’t much earlier that Americans knew what a top-end stout was. Ballantine Brewery in New Jersey had revived a rich brown stout in the 1930s, as did other breweries in the Northeast.
Barclay Perkins likely wanted to capitalize on this inherited old tradition, although it couldn’t have had much to export given the small quantities made at Anchor Brewery in London.
What does seem clear is the thinking of a few major British and Irish breweries after WW II that they could sell prime stout in America. Famously, Guinness tried via its satellite brewery in Long Island, NY (closed in 1954), a matter I also covered earlier. There was a brief fashion, too, as I also showed, for oyster stout in California of all places. It was all for nought, America didn’t want to know, then.
But it is useful to recall: the pre-craft beer era was not a desert. There has always been fine beer in North America, albeit inconsistently and not always easy to find. Some was made in America itself such as Ballantine India Pale Ale, or all-malt draught Michelob, or the Prior Light and Dark beers from the Keystone State. And there was Anchor Steam Beer, which formed a bridge finally to the craft beer revolution.
Note: See this post added March 4, 2019 for a sequel to the above.